Research papers should report original research or development of techniques and applications. They should be written with a wide readership in mind and should emphasize the practical significance of the work. The objective should be stated, procedures clearly explained and results and conclusions given. Research papers should not normally exceed 3000 words with an average of 8 figures and 2 tables. The abstract, nomenclature, concise figure captions and reference are additional to the length allowance.
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.
Material and methods
Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.
The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.
Subdivision - numbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.
Essential title page information
- Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
- Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
- Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
- Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself. The abstract must not exceed 150 words.
Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate file in the online submission system.
Immediately after the abstract, provide between 4 and 6 keywords, in English or Russian. Avoid 'and', 'of', 'the', and the like, and be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field are permissible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI. Avoid use of the solidus (/) so units should always read e.g. kg m-Â² and not kg/mÂ².
Vectors and tensors should be marked clearly on the manuscript. Equation numbers should appear in parenthesis and be numbered consecutively. All equation numbers must appear on the right-hand side of the equation and should be referred to within the text. Use the following sequence of parentheses: )]}. Mathematical symbols and formulae should be typed. Particular care should be exercised in identifying all symbols and in avoiding ambiguities. Distinction should be made between the number one (1) and the letter l and between zero (0) and the letter O. If a number of symbols are used the author must provide a nomenclature list of these symbols and their meanings types on a separate piece of paper. All parameters must be noted in italics, except for subscripts. British Standards BS 350, 1991 and 3763 or ISO/R31 may be referred to for units, abbreviations and symbols. The term "billion" (109 in America and 1012 in Europe) is ambiguous and should not be used.
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list. Table footnotes. Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter.
- Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
- Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier.
- Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
- Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
- Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image.
- For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage.
- Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on website
FormatsRegardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
- EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.
- TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
- TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
- TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
Please do not:
- Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
- Supply files that are too low in resolution.
- Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.
Citation in textPlease ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
Web referencesAs a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
References in a special issuePlease ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.
Reference formattingThere are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.
Reference StyleAll citations in the text should refer to:
- Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication;
- Two authors: both authors' names and the year of publication;
- Three or more authors: first author's name followed by "et al." and the year of publication.
Examples: "as demonstrated (Allan, 1996a, 1996b, 1999; Allan and Jones, 1995). Kramer et al. (2000) have recently shown ...."
List: References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters "a", "b", "c", etc., placed after the year of publication.
Reference to a journal publication: Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J.A.J., Lupton, R.A., 2000. The art of writing a scientific article. J. Sci. Commun. 163, 51–59.
Reference to a book: Strunk Jr., W., White, E.B., 1979. The Elements of Style, third ed. Macmillan, New York.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book: Mettam, G.R., Adams, L.B., 1999. How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: Jones, B.S., Smith , R.Z. (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age. E-Publishing Inc., New York, pp. 281–304.
Translate topics of reference not written in English or French into English
Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to:
- Index Medicus journal abbreviations
- List of serial title word abbreviations
- CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service)
- For the International Journal of Refrigeration use : Int. J. Refrigeration.
The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
- E-mail address
- Full postal address
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
- All figure captions
- All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
- Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
- All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
- Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
Contact details for questions arising after acceptance of an article will be provided by the editor.